Bifenox induces programmed cell death in bovine mammary epithelial cells by impairing calcium homeostasis, triggering ER stress, and altering the signaling cascades of PI3K/AKT and MAPK

Hakyoung You, Garam An, Hojun Lee, Whasun Lim, Gwonhwa Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bifenox (methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate), a nitrophenyl ether herbicide, was first introduced in the 1980s to control broadleaf weeds. As a result of its wide and frequent application in diverse agricultural settings and reports on residual traces, potential adverse effects of bifenox have been studied extensively in rat hepatocytes, bovine peripheral lymphocytes, and mice. Despite the reported risks of bifenox exposure in dairy cows, the toxicity of bifenox on bovine lactation system has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, we used bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells to study the toxic effects of bifenox on mammary glands. We found that bifenox inhibited MAC-T cells proliferation and disturbed the cell cycle, especially in the sub-G1 and G1 phases. Bifenox also disrupted the calcium homeostasis within the cell and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. We also examined phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. The findings indicated hyperactivation of phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), S6, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by bifenox treatment. In conclusion, based on our in vitro study employing MAC-T cells, we report that bifenox can induce damage to the bovine mammary glands, potentially impacting milk production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105626
JournalPesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Volume196
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Bifenox
  • Bovine mammary gland
  • ER stress
  • Loss of ΔΨm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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