Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg-1 dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQPAHs) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log Kow) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the projects entitled “Oil spill Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Restoration (PM56951)”, “Development of Integrated Estuarine Management System”, and “Development of Techniques for Assessment and Management of Hazardous Chemicals in the Marine Environment” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea given to Prof. JSK. Prof. JPG was supported by the Canada Research Chair program , a Visiting Distinguished Professorship in the Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong , the 2012 ″High Level Foreign Experts” (#GDW20123200120) program, funded by the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs , the P.R. China to Nanjing University and the Einstein Professor Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences .
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
- H4IIE-luc bioassay
- Potency balance
- Toxicity equivalents
- Yellow sea
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis