Bowing-alleviated continuous bandgap engineering of wafer-scale WS2xSe2(1-x) monolayer alloys and their assembly into hetero-multilayers

Hee Seong Kang, Jung Hoon Kang, Sol Lee, Kihyun Lee, Do Hyoung Koo, Yong Sung Kim, Young Joon Hong, Yong Jin Kim, Kwanpyo Kim, Donghun Lee, Chul Ho Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Bandgap engineering of compound semiconductors and the fabrication of bandgap-modulated heterostructures are important for enabling the development of modern optoelectronics. However, these engineering processes are challenging for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors of transition metal dichalcogenides, particularly on a large scale. Herein, we report the wafer-scale homogeneous growth of composition-modulated WS2xSe2(1-x) alloys with a continuously tunable bandgap using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. Well-optimized growth produces monolayer films with excellent homogeneity over the entire wafer. The substitutional atomic chalcogen (S, Se) concentration in WS2xSe2(1-x) alloys is precisely controlled by varying the flow rate of the metal–organic precursors, leading to a bandgap modulation from 1.67 to 2.05 eV, as determined from absorbance spectra. Notably, the optical bandgap of WS2xSe2(1-x) alloys exhibits a nearly linear relationship with the chalcogen composition, implying a low bowing effect. This bowing-alleviated bandgap modulation is attributed to the small lattice mismatch, strain relaxation, and thermodynamic miscibility in the WS2xSe2(1-x) alloys, as confirmed by density-functional theory calculations. Furthermore, the fabrication of hetero-multilayers by stacking differently alloyed films is demonstrated. The produced heterostructure film exhibits a broad spectral absorbance distinct from that of the individual layers. The findings of this study provide insights for the advancement of versatile design of functional 2D optoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number90
JournalNPG Asia Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant, funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (2020M3D1A1110548, 2022M3H4A1A01010280, 2017R1A5A1014862 (SRC Program: vdWMRC center), and 2020R1A2C2009389). D.L. acknowledges the support from the NRF of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education (2020R1I1A1A01071872) and the Korean government (MSIT) (2021R1C1C2094189).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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