Bridging the Domain Gap Towards Generalization in Automatic Colorization

Hyejin Lee, Daehee Kim, Daeun Lee, Jinkyu Kim, Jaekoo Lee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


We propose a novel automatic colorization technique that learns domain-invariance across multiple source domains and is able to leverage such invariance to colorize grayscale images in unseen target domains. This would be particularly useful for colorizing sketches, line arts, or line drawings, which are generally difficult to colorize due to a lack of data. To address this issue, we first apply existing domain generalization (DG) techniques, which, however, produce less compelling desaturated images due to the network’s over-emphasis on learning domain-invariant contents (or shapes). Thus, we propose a new domain generalizable colorization model, which consists of two modules: (i) a domain-invariant content-biased feature encoder and (ii) a source-domain-specific color generator. To mitigate the issue of insufficient source domain-specific color information in domain-invariant features, we propose a skip connection that can transfer content feature statistics via adaptive instance normalization. Our experiments with publicly available PACS and Office-Home DG benchmarks confirm that our model is indeed able to produce perceptually reasonable colorized images. Further, we conduct a user study where human evaluators are asked to (1) answer whether the generated image looks naturally colored and to (2) choose the best-generated images against alternatives. Our model significantly outperforms the alternatives, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method. The code is available at

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputer Vision – ECCV 2022 - 17th European Conference, Proceedings
EditorsShai Avidan, Gabriel Brostow, Moustapha Cissé, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Tal Hassner
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9783031197895
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event17th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2022 - Tel Aviv, Israel
Duration: 2022 Oct 232022 Oct 27

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13677 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference17th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2022
CityTel Aviv

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgement. This work was supported by Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2021-0-00994, Sustainable and robust autonomous driving AI education/development integrated platform). J. Kim was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ICT Creative Consilience program (IITP-2022-2020-0-01819) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Automatic colorization
  • Domain generalization
  • Generative adversarial networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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