Brittle–Ductile Transitions of Rubber Toughened Polypropylene Blends: A Review

Jung Wook Wee, Alexander Chudnovsky, Byoung Ho Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Polypropylene (PP) blended with rubber particles has been recognized for significantly increasing impact resistance, which is increasingly demanded in industries such as electric vehicles and consumer electronics. However, a comprehensive understanding of the toughening mechanisms underlying these lightweight impact-resistant materials is imperative for future research. This article provides a detailed review of the ductile-to-brittle (DB) transition behavior and the improvements in impact resistance observed in rubber-toughened PP blends. Firstly, the fracture behavior of homogeneous PP is summarized across different strain rates and temperatures, including the DB transition and yielding and crazing criteria. Furthermore, the influence of notches and defects on the DB transition is discussed extensively. Subsequently, the article examines the theoretical and practical aspects of the toughening mechanisms facilitated by the rubber phase in PP-rubber blends. The percolation model is used to investigate the inter-distance criterion between neighboring rubber particles and the impact of particle size and content on toughening behavior. The primary objective of this article is to enhance the understanding of the toughening behavior exhibited by PP and rubber blends. Additionally, this study aims to provide valuable insights for developing advanced lightweight materials using PP-based blends for various industrial applications.

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Korean Society for Precision Engineering.


  • Damage mechanism
  • Ductile-to-brittle transition
  • Notch sensitivity
  • Percolation theory
  • Polypropylene blends
  • Toughening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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