Bromide Incorporation Enhances Vertical Orientation of Triple Organic Cation Tin-Halide Perovskites for High-Performance Lead-Free Solar Cells

Nasir Khan, Du Hyeon Ryu, Jong Goo Park, Hang Ken Lee, Sang Kyu Lee, Won Suk Shin, Jong Cheol Lee, Ki Ha Hong, Sang Hyuk Im, Chang Eun Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Tin-halide perovskite solar cells (THPSCs) are attractive in the photovoltaic field as promising candidates to address the issue of potential lead toxicity and approach the theoretical efficiency limit in lead-halide perovskite photovoltaics. Nevertheless, THPSCs suffer from fast crystallization, low defect tolerance, mismatched energy levels, as well as severe oxidation from Sn2+ to Sn4+, leading to the low performance of devices. Herein, bromide is incorporated in the PEA0.15EA0.15FA0.70SnI1−XBrX perovskite precursor, which produces 2D/3D hybrid cations tin-halide perovskite films with highly vertical oriented crystallization, favorable band-level alignment, and suppressed tin oxidation. This leads to the decrease of trap density and charge recombination losses and the enhancement of charge carrier extraction in THPSCs. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of the optimal THPSC (X = 0.30) surges to 10.12% in contrast to 7.13% of the control device (X = 0.00), along with a nearly eliminated current–voltage hysteresis. Furthermore, bromine-incorporated THPSCs exhibit outstanding light soaking and humidity stability. These results are also in good agreement with the density functional theory calculations. This compositional engineering with Br could become a promising approach for improving the efficiency and stability of THPSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200631
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
N.K. and D.H.R. contributed equally to this work. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support granted by the National Research Foundation (NRF) (NRF‐2020M3H4A3081813 & NRF‐2021R1A2C2091787), by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) (No. 20183010013820) and by the UST Young Scientist Research Program 2021 through the University of Science and Technology (2021YS38) of the Republic of Korea. GIWAXS characterization was carried out by the PLS‐II 9A beamline at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory in the Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Solar RRL published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • bromide incorporation
  • crystallization
  • lead-free perovskites
  • stability
  • vertical orientation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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