Development of efficient strategies for the synthesis of multicomponent microspheres applicable to cathodes in lithium ion batteries is in urgent need. This paper presents ‘drop and dry’ method for synthesizing dense and yolk-shell multicomponent transition metal oxide microspheres. The infiltration of ethanol solution containing several metal precursors into highly porous carbon template microspheres through repetitive drop and dry process and subsequent heat treatment under oxygen atmosphere result in dense and yolk-shell microspheres. The first target cathode material is LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, which operates at high voltage. After infiltration of Li, Mn, and Ni salts into the pores of the carbonaceous microspheres, stepwise heat treatment under low oxygen flow rate yields dense LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 microspheres exhibiting non-aggregation characteristics and narrow size distribution. In comparison, one-step oxidation of carbon microspheres containing metal salts under high oxygen flow rate results in yolk-shell LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 microspheres. The dense and yolk-shell microspheres exhibit stable cycle performance and capacities of 113 and 111 mA h g−1 are delivered after 1200 cycles at 10 C rate, respectively. In addition, discharge capacities of 69 and 44 mA h g−1 for yolk-shell and dense microspheres, respectively, are delivered at a high current density of 50 C.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education ( NRF-2019R1A2C2088047 ).
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.
- Carbon microspheres
- Dense microspheres
- Lithium-ion battery cathode
- Nanostructured materials
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering