Carrying cost of money and real effects of denomination structure

Manjong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides an explanation for the nature of the real effects of denomination structure using parameterized versions of a search-based model. We show that the carrying cost of money incurs the distortionary effect on output and the adverse distributional effect on welfare. With monetary expansion, average propensity to consume increases more rapidly in a single denomination than in multiple denominations due to the distortionary effect, and the welfare gap between them is augmented due to both distortionary and adverse distributional effects. The implication of these effects for modern economies is that a binary-decimal structure adopted by the EU and the US is superior to a decimal-pair structure adopted by Japan and South Korea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-337
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Macroeconomics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Mar

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
I wish to thank an anonymous referee for useful comments which have helped me improve the paper substantially. This work was supported by Kyung Hee University Grant No. KHU-20070710.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Denominations
  • Matching model
  • Welfare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics


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