Change in texture improvement of low-fat tofu by means of low-fat soymilk protein denaturation

Woo kyoung Shin, Wallace H. Yokoyama, Wook Kim, Louise Wicker, Yookyung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Tofu made from low-fat soy flour is a nutritional food for consumers and economically benefits the food processor. However, low-fat tofu has poor textural quality, especially insufficient firmness. Stepwise heating (heating at 75 °C, followed by holding at 95 °C) of full-fat soymilk increases gel properties. Therefore we evaluated the two-step heating of low-fat soymilk to improve tofu texture. RESULTS: The denaturation enthalpy and temperature of β-conglycinin and glycinin were higher in low-fat tofu compared to high-fat tofu. The viscosity of low-fat soymilk and texture of tofu by one-step heating were weaker than full-fat soymilk and tofu. However, the two-step heating increased free sulfhydryl groups and viscosity of low-fat soymilk to a value higher or similar to conventional soymilk. The syneresis of low-fat tofu was reduced about 30% and hardness was higher (131.0 N) by the two-step process compared to one-step heating of full-fat tofu (101.4 N) by the one-step process. The microstructure of low-fat tofu became finer, denser and more homogeneous by the two-step heat process. CONCLUSION: Low-fat tofu produced by denaturing the two major soy proteins separately had improved textural qualities similar to full-fat tofu as a result of increased hydrophobic interactions between denatured protein molecules.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1000-1007
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 30

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


  • Gelling
  • Low-fat soymilk
  • Low-fat tofu
  • Stepwise denaturation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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