Changes of ginsenosides in Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum M1

Bong Gwan Kim, Sin Yang Choi, Mi Ryung Kim, Hyung Joo Suh, Hyun Jin Park

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66 Citations (Scopus)


To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng powder (RGP), Lactobacillus species (M1-M4 and P1-P4) were isolated from commercial ginseng products. Strain M1 was determined to be L. plantarum by 16S rRNA sequencing. Red ginseng powder (RGP) fermented by L. plantarum M1 had a high total content of ginsenosides (142.4. mg/g) as compared to the control (121.8. mg/g). In particular, the ginsenoside metabolites Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Compound K (CK), Rh1, and Rg2 showed a high level in the fermented RGP (65.5. mg/g) compared to the control (32.7. mg/g). During fermentation for 7 days, total sugar content decreased from 8.55. mg/g to 4. mg/g, uronic acid content reached its maximum (53.43 μg/g) at 3 days, and total ginsenoside content increased to 176.8. mg/g at 4 days. In addition, ginsenoside metabolites increased from 38.0. mg/g to 83.4. mg/g at 4 days of fermentation. Using everted instestinal sacs of rats, the fermented red ginseng showed a high transport level (10.3. mg of polyphenols/g sac) compared to non-fermented red ginseng (6.67. mg of polyphenols/g sac) after 1. h. These results confirm that fermentation with L. plantarum M1 is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1319-1324
Number of pages6
JournalProcess Biochemistry
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug


  • Fermented red ginseng
  • Ginsenoside metabolites
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus species
  • Red ginseng powder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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