BACKGROUND: The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. RESULTS: Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) of isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as sequence type (ST) 28, ST 64 and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; with serine being changed in gyrA83, gyrA87 and parC80. This result shows that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and enable reduction of resistance rates.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants from the Rural Development Administration (PJ00758504, PJ010500). We thank the Gyeonggi Health and Environment Institute for providing the fecal samples. We also thank the Korea University Food Safety Hall and the Institute of Food and Biomedicine Safety for allowing the use of their equipment and facilities.
© 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
- Enterococcus spp
- high-level ciprofloxacin resistance
- sequence type
- virulence factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics