This study investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on particulate matter (PM) characteristics from a light-duty diesel engine. The test engine was a 1.6 L Euro-5 diesel engine operated from low- to high-speed and high-load conditions. Specially formulated nonadditive containing base oil and genuine oil were evaluated. For diesel PM characterization, physicochemical analytic procedures were conducted on engine oil formulation, oil flushing, PMs sampling, morphology, and particle constituent determination. Size-resolved particle number (PN) concentration at the engine-out position was evaluated by differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). Nucleation mode particles originating from engine oil consumption during the expansion stroke had a higher concentration from genuine oil than those from base oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the morphology patterns and atomic compositions with engine oil packages. From the SEM analysis, spherical PM of nucleation and accumulation mode particles were agglomerated on a quartz filter. In the XPS spectrum, more engine oil additive fractions of Ca, P, and Zn were found in the PM sample from genuine oil. In conclusion, the variation of physicochemical engine oil properties and additive amounts had strong contributions to engine oil derived PN emissions, morphology, and additive metal compositions in the exhaust gas stream.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the BK21 plus program (21A20131712520) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea, Korea Auto-Oil Program, and the Korea University Grant.
© 2020, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Additive package
- Engine oil
- Particle size distribution
- Scanning electron microscopy
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering