Sixteen Salmonella strains resistant to nalidixic acid isolated from kimbab, the most popular ready-to-eat (RTE) food in Korea, and chicken meat were selected for this study. The resistant strains were shown to have high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nalidixic acid (512. ~. 4096. μg/mL). Among them, 4 Salmonella enterica serovar Haardt isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) patterns with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone (0.5. μg/mL of ciprofloxacin MICs). The mechanisms of quinolone resistance in the nalidixic acid resistant strains were characterized by PCR and sequence analysis. The presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and amino acid changes in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) were investigated by PCR-based detection and sequencing, and the efflux pump inhibition test was also done using phe-arg-μ-naphthylamide (PAμN). Although PMQR genes were not detected in any of the tested strains, the QRDR mutations were found in this study: single mutation in gyrA (Asp87Tyr, Asp87Gly, and Asp87Asn), double mutations in gyrA (Ser83Thr) and parC (Thr57Ser), and single mutation in parC (Thr57Ser). MICs of nalidixic acid were reduced by 2- to 32-folds by the efflux pump inhibitor, PAμN. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out to confirm the epidemiological relationship between the nalidixic acid resistant strains. The PFGE patterns were classified into 6 groups at cutoff level of 70. ~. 100% correlation on the dendrogram. Some strains of serotype Haardt and Enteritidis showed several values of genomic identity in accordance with strains, sources, and isolation year. We suggest that point mutation on QRDR and efflux pump systems involved in antimicrobials had independent effects on drug-resistance regardless of bacterial genomic variation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Management Program ( 08072NARMP150 , 09072NARMP134 ) of the Korean Food and Drug Administration . We thank the Korea University Food Safety Hall and Institute of Food and Biomedicine Safety for allowing the use of their equipment and facilities.
- Foodborne pathogens
- Quinolone resistance
- Salmonella enterica
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science