Chloroform induces cystein-rich 61, a mediator of collagen homeostasis via early growth response-1 dependent pathway in human skin dermal fibroblasts

Hana Lee, Jae Beom Park, Woo In Ryu, Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Jin Shin, Sang Wook Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major air pollutants known to have adverse effects on skin. Many reports have shown an association between air pollutants and skin aging. However, there is no report on VOCs association with skin aging. The aim of this study is to identify the biologic effects of VOCs on fibroblasts. We investigated the effects of chloroform on cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) expression in human skin fibroblasts using western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. We also observed the change of type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase after exposure to chloroform using western blot. We explored the involvement of early growth response-1 (Egr-1) using siRNA s in the fibroblasts. Chloroform exposure increased the expression of CYR61 protein and mRNA level. Elevated CYR61 downregulates type I procollagen and upregulates MMP-1. Egr-1 overexpression upregulates CYR61 promoter activity. CYR61 promoter activity was lower in Egr-1 siRNA-transfected fibroblasts. The present study demonstrates that CYR61 is transcriptionally regulated by chloroform exposure through transcription factor Egr-1, and alters collagen homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337-343
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular and Cellular Toxicology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Originally received: June 21,1993. Revision accepted: June 17, 1994. * Members of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study are listed in the Appendix at the end of this article. Presented in part at the American Academy of Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, Dallas, November 1992. Supported in part by cooperative agreements (EY07479, EY07480, EY07482, EY07483, EY07486, EY07487, EY07488, EY07489, and EY07496) with the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland. IOLAB Corporation and Burroughs Well come Co. supplied the study medications. The authors have no proprietary interest in any of the drugs or devices used in this study. Reprint requests to Chandler R. Dawson, MD, Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of Califomia, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0412.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


  • Chloroform
  • Cysteine-rich 61
  • Early growth response-1
  • Skin fibroblast
  • Volatile organic compound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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