Chlorpyrifos-induced biomarkers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

Hwang Ju Jeon, Yong Ho Lee, Hyoung ho Mo, Myoung Jin Kim, Mohammad I. Al-Wabel, Yongeun Kim, Kijong Cho, Tae Wan Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Sung Eun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Chlorpyrifos (CHL) is an organophosphate compound that is widely used as an insecticide. Due to its repeated use and high environmental residual property, CHL is frequently passed into aquatic environments by runoff. Consequently, there may be an adverse effect on aquatic vertebrate animals, including fish. Therefore, in this study, we assessed how CHL affected Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The acute toxicity of CHL in adult fish after 96 h of exposure was determined to be 212.50, 266.79, and 412.28 μg L−1 (LC25, LC50, and LC95, respectively). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CE) activities were obtained from the livers of dead or surviving fish, and the results showed 4.8-fold lower, 4.5-fold higher, and 18.6-fold lower activities for the AChE, GST, and CE, respectively, for 64-h exposure at a concentration of 400 μg L−1 of CHL. In the embryo toxicity test, curved spines were observed in embryos that were exposed to CHL for 48 h in a concentration-dependent manner. With identification of biomarkers for CHL in the fish, two protein peaks, 5550.86 and 5639.79 m/z, were found to be upregulated. These two proteins can be used as protein biomarkers for CHL contamination in aquatic systems. A phosphatidyl choline with an m/z ratio of 556.32 dramatically decreased after CHL exposure in the fish; thus, it may be considered as a lipid biomarker for CHL. It is assumed as the first report to identify a phospholipid biomarker using a lipidomics approach in fish toxicology. Taken together, these results demonstrated the adverse effects of CHL on Japanese medaka and reveal several candidate biomarkers that can be used as diagnostic tools for determining CHL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1080
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Carboxylesterase
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • Japanese medaka
  • Phosphatidylcholine biomarker

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Chlorpyrifos-induced biomarkers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this