We compared the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or cerebral infarction (CI) in patients with or without-gallstone-related infection (GSI) and change in the risk following cholecystectomy. GSI (n = 84,467) and non-GSI (n = 406,800) patients with age- and sex-matched controls (n = 4,912,670) were identified from Korean population based data. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of MI or CI were analyzed in both groups treated with or without cholecystectomy. Subgroup analysis was performed for both sexes and different ages. The risk of MI or CI was higher in the GSI group than in the non-GSI group (aHR for MI; 1.32 vs. 1.07, aHR for CI; 1.24 vs. 1.06, respectively). The risk reduction rate of MI following cholecystectomy was 11.4% in the GSI group, whereas it was 0% in the non-GSI group. The risk of CI after cholecystectomy was more reduced in the GSI group than in the non-GSI group (16.1% and 4.7%, respectively). The original risk of MI or CI in patients with gallstones and risk reduction rates following cholecystectomy were higher in females and younger patients than in males and older patients. Increased risk of MI or CI and greater risk reduction following cholecystectomy were seen in patients with GSI.
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