Limited studies on neurotoxicity following chronic exposure to butyl‑paraben (BuP) have been conducted. In this study, neurobehavior in zebrafish adults was assessed using the novel tank test, photomotor response test, and T-maze test after exposure to BuP for 28 days at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L. To comprehensively understand the underlying molecular perturbations in the brain, alterations in transcripts, neurotransmitters, and neurosteroids were measured. We found that BuP penetrated the blood-brain barrier and impaired neurobehavior in photosensitivity at 1.0 mg/L and in memory at 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. RNA-seq analysis showed that phototransduction, tight junctions, and neuroactive ligand receptor activity were significantly affected, which explains the observed abnormal neurobehaviors. Neurosteroid analysis revealed that BuP increased cortisol levels in a concentration-dependent manner and specifically reduced allopregnanolone levels at all tested concentrations, suggesting that cortisol and allopregnanolone are significant neurosteroid markers associated with photosensitivity and memory deficits. Collectively, we demonstrated that BuP can cross the blood-brain and modulate the levels of transcripts, associated with phototransduction and circadian rhythm, and neurosteroidal cortisol and allopregnanolone, resulting in abnormal neurobehavioral responses to light stimulation and learning and memory.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Oct|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aquatic Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis