Circular, linear, and curvilinear vection in a large-screen virtual environment with floor projection

Laura C. Trutoiu, Betty J. Mohler, Jörg Schulte-Pelkum, Heinrich H. Bülthoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Vection is defined as the compelling sensation of illusory self-motion elicited by a moving sensory, usually visual, stimulus. This paper presents collected introspective data, user discomfort and perceived speed data for the experience of linear, circular, and curvilinear vection in a large-screen, immersive, virtual environment. As a first step we evaluated the effectiveness of a floor projection on the perception of vection for four trajectories: linear forward, linear backward, circular left, and circular right. The floor projection, which considerably extended the field of view, was found to significantly improve the introspective measures of linear, but not circular, vection experienced in a photo-realistic three-dimensional town. In a second study we investigated the differences between 12 different motion trajectories on the illusion of self-motion. In this study we found that linear translations to the left and right are perceived as the least convincing, while linear down is perceived as the most convincing of the linear trajectories. Second, we found that while linear forward vection is not perceived to be very convincing, curvilinear forward vection is reported to be as convincing as circular vection. In a third and final experiment we investigated the perceived speed for all different trajectories and acquired data based on simulator sickness questionnaires to compute a discomfort factor associated with each type of trajectory. Considering our experimental results, we offer suggestions for increasing the sense of self-motion in simulators and VE applications, specifically to increase the number of curvilinear trajectories (as opposed to linear ones) and, if possible, add floor projection in order to improve the illusory sense of self-motion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-58
Number of pages12
JournalComputers and Graphics (Pergamon)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Self-motion perception
  • Vection
  • Virtual environments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Engineering(all)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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