Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential cofactor of critical enzymes including protein deacetylase sirtuins/SIRTs and its levels in mammalian cells rely on the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-mediated salvage pathway. Intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) is secreted and found in the blood as extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT). In the liver, the iNAMPT−NAD+ axis oscillates in a circadian manner and regulates the cellular clockwork. Here we show that the hypothalamic NAD+ levels show a distinct circadian fluctuation with a nocturnal rise in lean mice. This rhythm is in phase with that of plasma eNAMPT levels but not with that of hypothalamic iNAMPT levels. Chemical and genetic blockade of eNAMPT profoundly inhibit the nighttime elevations in hypothalamic NAD+ levels as well as those in locomotor activity (LMA) and energy expenditure (EE). Conversely, elevation of plasma eNAMPT by NAMPT administration increases hypothalamic NAD+ levels and stimulates LMA and EE via the hypothalamic NAD+−SIRT−FOXO1−melanocortin pathway. Notably, obese animals display a markedly blunted circadian oscillation in blood eNAMPT−hypothalamic NAD+−FOXO1 axis as well as LMA and EE. Our findings indicate that the eNAMPT regulation of hypothalamic NAD+ biosynthesis underlies circadian physiology and that this system can be significantly disrupted by obesity.
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© 2023, The Author(s).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Physics and Astronomy
- General Chemistry
- General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology