CIRO: The effects of visually diminished real objects on human perception in handheld augmented reality

Hanseob Kim, Taehyung Kim, Myungho Lee, Gerard Jounghyun Kim, Jae In Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Augmented reality (AR) scenes often inadvertently contain real world objects that are not relevant to the main AR content, such as arbitrary passersby on the street. We refer to these real-world objects as content-irrelevant real objects (CIROs). CIROs may distract users from focusing on the AR content and bring about perceptual issues (e.g., depth distortion or physicality conflict). In a prior work, we carried out a comparative experiment investigating the effects on user perception of the AR content by the degree of the visual diminishment of such a CIRO. Our findings revealed that the diminished representation had positive impacts on human perception, such as reducing the distraction and increasing the presence of the AR objects in the real environment. However, in that work, the ground truth test was staged with perfect and artifact-free diminishment. In this work, we applied an actual real-time object diminishment algorithm on the handheld AR platform, which cannot be completely artifact-free in practice, and evaluated its performance both objectively and subjectively. We found that the imperfect diminishment and visual artifacts can negatively affect the subjective user experience.

Original languageEnglish
Article number900
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported in part by a National Research Council of Science and Technology (NST) grant by the Korean Government through the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) (CRC-20-02-KIST) and also by the MSIT under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2021-2016-0-00312) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information and communications Technology Planning and Evaluation).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Diminished reality
  • Distraction
  • Dynamic object removal
  • Handheld augmented reality
  • Inpainting
  • Perceptual issue
  • User experience
  • Visual perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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