CLARA: Classifying and Disambiguating User Commands for Reliable Interactive Robotic Agents

Jeongeun Park, Seungwon Lim, Joonhyung Lee, Sangbeom Park, Minsuk Chang, Youngjae Yu, Sungjoon Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this letter, we focus on inferring whether the given user command is clear, ambiguous, or infeasible in the context of interactive robotic agents utilizing large language models (LLMs). To tackle this problem, we first present an uncertainty estimation method for LLMs to classify whether the command is certain (i.e., clear) or not (i.e., ambiguous or infeasible). Once the command is classified as uncertain, we further distinguish it between ambiguous or infeasible commands leveraging LLMs with situational aware context prompts. For ambiguous commands, we disambiguate the command by interacting with users via question generation with LLMs. We believe that proper recognition of the given commands could lead to a decrease in malfunction and undesired actions of the robot, enhancing the reliability of interactive robot agents. We present a dataset for robotic situational awareness consisting of pairs of high-level commands, scene descriptions, and labels of command type (i.e., clear, ambiguous, or infeasible). We validate the proposed method on the collected dataset and pick-and-place tabletop simulation environment. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed approach in real-world human-robot interaction experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1066
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IEEE.


  • AI-enabled robotics
  • human-centered automation
  • human-centered robotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence


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