Combined Effects of Ziziphus jujuba, Dimocarpus longan, and Lactuca sativa on Sleep-Related Behaviors through GABAergic Signaling

Gi Yeon Bae, Kayoung Ko, Eunseon Yang, Sung Soo Park, Hyung Joo Suh, Ki Bae Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We aimed to analyze the increase in the sleep-promoting effects based on the mixed ratio of botanical extracts, Ziziphus jujuba seeds, Dimocarpus longan fruits, and Lactuca sativa leaves, using animal models. Behavioral analyses, including an analysis of the total sleep time of Drosophila melanogaster, were conducted to select the optimal mixed ratio of the three botanical extracts. The effects were verified in a caffeine-induced sleepless model, specific neurotransmitter receptor antagonists, and ICR mice. In D. melanogaster exposed to 2.0% of each extract, group behavior was significantly reduced, and the mixed extracts of Z. jujuba, D. longan, and L. sativa (4:1:1 and 1:4:1) significantly increased the total sleep time with individual fruit flies. In the caffeine-induced insomnia model, mixed extracts (4:1:1 and 1:4:1) led to the highest increase in total sleep time. An analysis of locomotor ability revealed a significant reduction in the mobility percentage in the mixed extract groups (0:0:1, 1:0:1, 1:1:1, 4:1:1, and 1:4:1). The administration of Z. jujuba extract and mixed extracts (4:1:1) significantly increased the expression of GABAA-R, whereas the administration of the mixed extracts (4:1:1) and (1:4:1) significantly increased the expression of GABAB-R1 and GABAB-R2, respectively. D. longan extract and the mixed ratio (1:4:1) reduced the subjective nighttime movement and increased the total sleep time in the presence of flumazenil. An analysis of ICR mice indicated that the administration of mixed extracts (4:1:1) significantly increased sleep duration in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the mixed ratio of Z. jujuba, D. longan, and L. sativa extracts, particularly the mixed ratio of 4:1:1, may have sleep-enhancing effects in fruit flies and mice. The study also identified changes in gene expression related to GABA receptors, indicating the potential mechanism for the observed sleep-promoting effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalFoods
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • behavioral changes
  • botanical extract
  • invertebrate
  • sleep promotion
  • vertebrate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science

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