Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Korean Society of Environmental Health and Toxicology.
- Caenorhabditis elegans
- Gene expression
- Oxidative stress
- Passive dosing
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis