For decades, the measurement of heat generated during sonication - the calorimetric method - has been considered to represent the energy efficiency of ultrasonic reactors for useful chemical reactions. In this study, a modified calorimetric energy method using cavitating and non-cavitating solutions, referred to as cavitation energy method, has been developed and compared with conventional calorimetric method for the removal of an organic pollutant, bisphenol-A, in aqueous solutions under various experimental conditions. As the liquid height/volume was increased, cavitation yield for the degradation and mineralization of BPA significantly increased at 36. kHz and 262. kHz. Higher cavitation yields were obtained for both degradation and mineralization at 262. kHz compared to 36. kHz. It was found that the cavitation energy had a better correlation with the degradation and mineralization of BPA compared to the calorimetric energy. The enhancement observed at higher liquid height has been suggested to be due to the establishment of a standing wave field. The cavitation energy method seems to be useful to design the sonochemical reactors for the removal aqueous pollutants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Government of Korea (MEST) (KRF-2009-0092799). Y.S. and M.L. also acknowledge the fellowships from the NRF grant funded by the Government of Korea (MEST) (KRF-2011-357-D00136 and KRF-2011-357-D00143, respectively).
- Calorimetric energy
- Cavitation energy
- Standing wave field
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering