Influenza is a major cause of highly contagious respiratory illness resulting in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Annual vaccination is an effective way to prevent infection and complication from constantly mutating influenza strains. Vaccination utilizes preemptive inoculation with live virus, live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, or virus segments for optimal immune activation. The route of administration also affects the efficacy of the vaccination. Here, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with ultraviolet (UV)-inactivated or live influenza A virus strains and compared their effectiveness and cross protection when intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes of administration were used in mice. Intramuscular or intraperitoneal inoculation with UV-inactivated Influenza A/WSN/1933 provided some protection against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of live Influenza A/WSN/1933 but only when a high dose of the virus was used in the inoculation. By contrast, inoculation with a low dose of live virus via either route provided complete protection against the same intranasal challenge. Intraperitoneal inoculation with live or UV-inactivated Influenza A/Philippines/2/ 1982 and intramuscular inoculation with UV-inactivated Influenza A/Philippines/2/1982 failed to produce cross-reactive antibodies against Influenza A/WSN/1933. Intramuscular inoculation with live Influenza A/Philippines/2/1982 induced small amounts of cross-reactive antibodies but could not suppress the cytokine storm produced upon intranasal challenge with Influenza A/WSN/1993. None of the tested inoculation conditions provided observable cross protection against intranasal challenge with a different influenza strain. Taken together, vaccination efficacy was affected by the state and dose of the vaccine virus and the route of administration. These results provide practical data for the development of effective vaccines against influenza virus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF-2020R1A2B5B02001806) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT in South Korea. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Copyright: © 2022 Baek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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