Comparison of various menopausal symptoms and risk factor analysis in Korean women according to stage of menopause

Ki Jin Ryu, Hyuntae Park, Yong Jin Kim, Kyong Wook Yi, Jung Ho Shin, Jun Young Hur, Tak Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their related risk factors among middle-aged Korean women according to their reproductive stages. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3039 Korean women, aged 45–65 years, who attended their routine health checkup. Their scores from the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) were compared and participants were categorized into four groups according to stage of menopause: premenopause, early menopause (≤2 years from their last menstruation), mid-menopause (2–8 years), and late menopause (>8 years). Results: The mean age of the participants was 52.81 ± 5.39 years, and 98.5 % of them reported one or more symptoms included in the MRS. The most common symptom was physical/mental exhaustion, experienced by 86.7 % of participants. The prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, heart discomfort, sleep problems, sexual problems, vaginal dryness, and joint/muscular discomfort, increased in the early menopausal period. This increased in the late menopausal period compared with its prevalence at premenopause. The prevalence of moderate to severe psychological symptoms, heart discomfort, and sleep problems followed a U-shaped trend after menopause: high at early menopause, low at mid-menopause, and high again at late menopause. A low level of physical exercise was an independent risk factor for a high total MRS score; however, the menopausal stages, age, and weight were also variously associated with menopausal symptoms. Conclusions: Several menopausal symptoms remain severe, or are aggravated, until the late menopausal period among Korean women. More attention is warranted to manage these symptoms in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Menopausal symptoms
  • Menopause
  • Reproductive stage
  • Vasomotor symptoms
  • Years since menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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