Concentration of extended defects in CdZnTe single crystals: Effects of cooling rate after growth

L. Xu, W. Jie, A. E. Bolotnikov, U. N. Roy, J. Stein, A. Hossain, G. S. Camarda, K. H. Kim, G. Yang, R. Gul, Y. Cui, Y. Xu, T. Wang, G. Zha, R. B. James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


We analyzed two CZT crystals cut from as-grown CdZnTe (CZT) ingots, the only difference between them being the rate of cooling after the crystal growth process. Using White Beam X-ray Diffraction Topography (WBXDT) and Infrared (IR) Transmission Microscopy, we identified and quantified the extended defects, e.g., Te inclusions, dislocations, and sub-grain boundaries. The effects of cooling rate on the size distribution and concentration were studied. The WBXDT and IR images of the fast-cooled crystal revealed very high density of dislocations and sub-grain boundaries, crisscrossing throughout its entire volume, extending from deep inside almost to the surface. In addition, IR analyses showed that the concentration of Te inclusions in the fast-cooled crystal (10 6 cm -3) was higher than that in the slow-cooled one (10 5 cm -3). For the latter, both the WBXDT and the IR images were bright and clear with low concentration of defects. We concluded that slow cooling rate can greatly reduce the number of Te inclusions and inclusion-decorated extended defects in as-grown CZT ingots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-87
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Sept 15
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Special Fund of National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipments Development ( 2011YQ040082 ), the National 973 Project of China ( 2011CB610400 ), the 111 Project of China ( B08040 ), the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( NNSFC-50902114 ), the Foundation for Fundamental Research of Northwestern Polytechnical University, the Doctorate Foundation of Northwestern Polytechnical University ( CX201102 ), Ministry of Education Fund for Doctoral Students Newcomer Awards of China, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22). Lingyan Xu is grateful for the financial support from the China Scholarship Council under the State Scholarship Fund to pursue this study at Dr. Ralph B. James' Advanced Radiation Detection Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Specially, the authors sincerely acknowledge Avril Woodhead for her assistance with preparation of this paper.


  • A1. Extended defect
  • A1. Sub-grain boundary
  • A1. Te inclusion
  • A2. Cooling rate
  • A2. Crystal growth
  • B2. CdZnTe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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