Continuous-flow catalytic reactors based on 1d hydrogels for catalytic conversion and photocatalytic removal of organic materials in water

Hyeonbo Shim, Jeongeun Kim, Sang Hyuk Im, Young Seok Kim, Mun Ho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Contrasting with traditional batch-type reaction methodologies, continuous-flow chemistry introduces a transformative paradigm in heterogeneous catalysis, characterized by its advantageous features for industrial and environmental applications. In this study, we developed a novel approach to synthesize highly efficient continuous-flow reactors for water purification by integrating the principles of flow chemistry and nanocomposite hydrogels. Pd@AuAg trimetallic nanohybrids were synthesized with near-100 % yield by inducing the overgrowth of AuAg alloy nanoislands on a single Pd nanoplate, and further converted to Pd@AuAg–AgAuS metal-semiconductor nanohybrids through sulfidation. These nanohybrids were embedded within one-dimensional (1D) hydrogels housed in a transparent tube, forming internal channels for continuous flow. Through optimization of hydrogel cross-linking, channel architecture, and flow dynamics, the reactors demonstrated an impressive ability to convert 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) with a 96 % conversion rate using Pd@AuAg nanohybrids, and to degrade methylene blue (MB) with a 93 % efficiency using Pd@AuAg–AgAuS nanohybrids. Notably, these reactors have also exhibited outstanding stability, preserving over 95 % of their photocatalytic activity after 4 weeks of storage in a dried state. This work highlights the potential of continuous-flow reactors with tailored nanohybrids for environmental remediation and opens avenues for further advances in catalysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105055
JournalJournal of Water Process Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024


  • Catalysis
  • Flow reactor
  • Island growth
  • Photocatalysis
  • Water purification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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