Cooperation in the formative years: Evidence from small enterprises in Europe

Young Jun Kim, Nicholas S. Vonortas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


We empirically analyze factors that might affect the willingness of young small enterprises in several European countries to participate in collaborative agreements. These factors include the characteristics of the firm, of the entrepreneurs, and of the market environment the firm operates in. Within this age group - the "formative" years between 2 and 8 - firms are more likely to engage in collaboration as they grow larger, they are more innovative, they are led by educated and network-experienced entrepreneurs, and they perceive significant market risk, rapidly changing technology, and adequate IPR enforcement. They are more likely to search for collaborative opportunities when their counterparts in the same country and sector tend to do the same.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)795-805
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Management Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct


  • Alliances
  • Cooperation
  • Formative age
  • Networks
  • SMEs
  • Young firm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management


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