Correlating multimode strain and electrode configurations for high-performance gradient-index phononic crystal-based piezoelectric energy harvesting

Dae Su Kim, Wonjae Choi, Sun Woo Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Sahn Nahm, Miso Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A gradient-index phononic crystal (GRIN PnC) capable of manipulating wave propagation can serve as an excellent input wave energy focusing platform for amplifying energy harvesting power generation. However, despite its remarkable focusing capability, the finite wavelength of the propagating elastic waves in the focal area causes voltage cancellation inside a piezoelectric element under multimode strains having opposite directions; this limits the capacity of the GRIN PnC-based energy harvesting system. This study demonstrates a rational electrode configuration for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) device that can maximize the performance of a given GRIN PnC platform. The multimode strain analysis experimentally performed on the PEHs distributed over the focusing area confirms that the patterned electrode PEH configuration is the most effective in alleviating strain and voltage cancellation while efficiently transferring the focused elastic wave energy. Furthermore, a proper combination of electrical connections between the patterned electrodes substantially increases the piezoelectric potential across the ceramic by maximizing the strain difference. The simultaneous tailoring of the piezoelectric ceramic composition and the electrode configuration leads to a maximum power generation of 7.06 mW even under off-resonance conditions, the largest ever reported in elastic wave energy harvesting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-159
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials Horizons
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (NRF-2021R1A2C2095767), and the Nano. Material Technology Development Program through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT(NRF-2021M3A7C2089759), and the Technology Innovation Program (or Industrial Strategic technology development program, Project No. 20008775, Development of display integrated surface vibration and ecofriendly Pb-free piezoelectric materials and application technology) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Correlating multimode strain and electrode configurations for high-performance gradient-index phononic crystal-based piezoelectric energy harvesting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this