Crack Healing Mechanism by Application of Stack Pressure to the Carbon-Based Composite Anode of an All-Solid-State Battery

Hyun Jeong Lee, Hae Ryoung Kim, Kyu Jun Lee, Yebin Lee, Hong Kyu Kim, Woo Young Yoon, Jae Pyoung Ahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Mechanical cracks in an all-solid-state battery (ASSB) disrupt lithium-ion conduction pathways; thus, strategies to overcome these are warranted. We found that the stack pressure during charging and discharging heals microcracks in ASSBs, which imparts long-term cyclability in a composite anode made of graphite and solid-state electrolyte (SE, Li6PS5(Cl,Br)). The microcracks were generated when a fabrication pressure of 400 MPa was released but were mechanically bonded under a stack pressure of 40 MPa during cycle tests. They healed further due to the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) at the binder layer with a thickness of approximately 100 nm between the mechanically contacted graphite and SE. In this crack healing process, the binder served as medium for the movement of Li, S, and O atoms and as the location for the amorphous SEI layer formation. The SEI layer was primarily similar to that of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), which contained small amounts of sulfur, in terms of the chemical composition and chemical bond. The binder in the ASSB changed to a lithium carbonate SEI regardless of the stack pressure. In the absence of the stack pressure, the ASSB cells maintained the initial structure of the binder and crack in the pristine cell and were degraded with the crucial expansion of the microcracks between electrode materials. The stack pressure was most effective in mitigating the capacity reduction of ASSBs because it induced mechanical and chemical crack healing, which restored the conduction pathways between the graphite and SE particles. The mechanical and structural understanding acquired in this study is expected to provide research angles for sustainable, cost-effective, and high-performance graphite/argyrodite-based ASSB design and fabrication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5227-5235
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 25

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financially supported by the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) through Battery NGV program and also was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and the Korean government (MSIT) (2020R1A2C1012838).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


  • all-solid-state battery
  • conductive path
  • crack healing mechanism
  • graphite cell
  • solid electrolyte interface (SEI)
  • stack pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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