Creation of hierarchical micro/nano-porous TiO2 surface layer onto Ti implants for improved biocompatibility

Cheol Min Han, Hyoun Ee Kim, Young Hag Koh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


We created a hierarchical micro/nano-porous TiO2 surface layer onto a Ti substrate to enhance its biocompatibility by mimicking the hierarchical architecture of the native extracellular matrix. To accomplish this, a rough, micro-porous TiO2 layer with pore sizes in the range of 0.5-2μm was first formed on the surfaces of a Ti substrate using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and then coated with a thin layer of pure Ti, ~0.5μm in thickness, using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation. Subsequently, anodic oxidation was conducted to create a uniform nano-porous TiO2 surface layer with a pore size of ~70nm on the micro-porous layer. This hierarchical micro/nano-porous surface showed considerably enhanced hydrophilicity and in vitro biocompatibility compared to the dense surface and even the micro-porous and nano-porous surfaces. These improvements were attributed to the synergistic effect of micropores and nanopores created by a combination of MAO and anodic oxidation. In addition, protein adsorption capacity was remarkably improved due to the high affinity of the nano-porous TiO2 surface for proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul 25

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (Contract No. 10037915, WPM Biomedical Materials — Implant Materials) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korea).

Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Anodic oxidation
  • Biocompatibility
  • E-beam coating
  • Porous surface
  • Protein delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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