Current-Induced Spin–Orbit Torques for Spintronic Applications

Jeongchun Ryu, Soogil Lee, Kyoung Jin Lee, Byong Guk Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

127 Citations (Scopus)


Control of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures is essential for development of spintronic devices because it governs fundamental device characteristics such as energy consumption, areal density, and operation speed. In this respect, spin–orbit torque (SOT), which originates from the spin–orbit interaction, has been widely investigated due to its efficient manipulation of the magnetization using in-plane current. SOT spearheads novel spintronic applications including high-speed magnetic memories, reconfigurable logics, and neuromorphic computing. Herein, recent advances in SOT research, highlighting the considerable benefits and challenges of SOT-based spintronic devices, are reviewed. First, the materials and structural engineering that enhances SOT efficiency are discussed. Then major experimental results for field-free SOT switching of perpendicular magnetization are summarized, which includes the introduction of an internal effective magnetic field and the generation of a distinct spin current with out-of-plane spin polarization. Finally, advanced SOT functionalities are presented, focusing on the demonstration of reconfigurable and complementary operation in spin logic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1907148
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • MRAM
  • spin currents
  • spin logic devices
  • spintronic applications
  • spin–orbit torques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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