Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types including normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) induces the megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 human erythroleukemia cells through PKC activation. Decursin, a pyranocoumarin from Angelica gigas, exhibits the cytotoxic effects on various human cancer cell lines and in vitro PKC activation. We report here the differences between two PKC activators, tumor-suppressing decursin and tumor-promoting PDBu, in their actions on the megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells. First of all, decursin inhibited PDBu-induced bleb formation in K562 cells. Decursin also inhibited the PDBu-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells that is characterized by an increase in substrate adhesion, the secretion of granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the surface expression of integrin β3. The binding of PDBu to PKC was competitively inhibited by decursin. Decursin induced the more rapid down-regulation of PKC α and βII isozymes than that induced by PDBu in K562 cells. Unlike PDBu, decursin promoted the translocation of PKC α and βII to the nuclear membrane. Decursin-induced faster down-regulation and nuclear translocation of PKC α and βII were not affected by the presence of PDBu. All these results indicate that decursin and phorbol ester are PKC activators distinctively acting in megakaryocytic differentiation and PKC modulation in K562 leukemia cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the G7 project of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Fellowship support from the BK21 program of the Ministry of Education (H.H.K.) is gratefully acknowledged.
- Phorbol ester
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research