Deep representation of a normal map for screen-space fluid rendering

Myungjin Choi, Jee Hyeok Park, Qimeng Zhang, Byeung Sun Hong, Chang Hun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We propose a novel method for addressing the problem of efficiently generating a highly refined normal map for screen-space fluid rendering. Because the process of filtering the normal map is crucially important to ensure the quality of the final screen-space fluid rendering, we employ a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) as a filter that learns a deep normal map representation, thereby refining the low-quality normal map. In particular, we have designed a novel loss function dedicated to refining the normal map information, and we use a specific set of auxiliary features to train the cGAN generator to learn features that are more robust with respect to edge details. Additionally, we constructed a dataset of six different typical scenes to enable effective demonstrations of multitype fluid simulation. Experiments indicated that our generator was able to infer clearer and more detailed features for this dataset than a basic screen-space fluid rendering method. Moreover, in some cases, the results generated by our method were even smoother than those generated by the conventional surface reconstruction method. Our method improves the fluid rendering results via the high-quality normal map while preserving the advantages of the screen-space fluid rendering methods and the traditional surface reconstruction methods, including that of the computation time being independent of the number of simulation particles and the spatial resolution being related only to image resolution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9065
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2019R1A2C1008244) and the Technology Innovation Program (20004214, Big data and AI based Development of online service platform technology and business model for provide customized interior consul) funded By the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Fluid rendering
  • Image-based rendering
  • Machine learning
  • Screen space rendering
  • Supervised learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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