DeepCNAP: A Deep Learning Approach for Continuous Noninvasive Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring Using Photoplethysmography

Dong Kyu Kim, Tak Kim, Hakseung Kim, Dong Joo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring may permit the early diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, existing methods for measuring ABP outside the clinic use inconvenient cuff sphygmomanometry, or do not estimate continuous ABP waveforms. This study proposes a novel deep learning model DeepCNAP for estimating continuous BP waveform from a noninvasively measured photoplethysmography (PPG) signal in real-time. DeepCNAP was designed through the combination of deep convolutional networks and self-attention. The proposed method was constructed via 10-fold cross-validation based on the MIMIC database (the number of subjects = 942, recording time = 374.43 hours). The performance of DeepCNAP was evaluated from two perspectives: estimating ABP from PPG and classifying hemodynamically unstable events (i.e., hypertension, prehypertension, hypotension, and the normal state). The mean absolute errors of the BP estimates were 3.40 ± 4.36 mmHg for systolic BP, 1.75 ± 2.25 mmHg for diastolic BP, and 3.23 ± 2.21 mmHg for the BP waveform, indicating that DeepCNAP satisfies the standards of both the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). From the estimated BP, hypertension, prehypertension, hypotension, and the normal state were classified with 99.44, 97.58, 92.23, and 94.64% accuracy, respectively. DeepCNAP enables feasible real-time estimation of invasively measured ABP from noninvasive PPG. With its noninvasive nature, high accuracy, and clinical relevance, the proposed model could be valuable in general wards at hospitals and for wearable devices in daily life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3697-3707
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug 1


  • Deep learning
  • arterial blood pressure
  • hemodynamic instability
  • photoplethysmography
  • self-attention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Health Information Management


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