Defect induced ferromagnetism in h-BaTiO3 synthesized from t-BaTiO3 by microwave heating

Ramaraghavulu Rajavaram, Junwoo Park, Joonho Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Structure modification of tetragonal BaTiO3 (t-BaTiO3) and corresponding phase transition by microwave heating were investigated. The sample compound was heated by 1.8 kW power and 2.45 GHz frequency microwave irradiation under N2 atmosphere in a short experimental duration of 14 min. The maximum temperature of the surface of the sample was 1115 °C. The structure of the microwave irradiated BaTiO3 was then analyzed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. From XRD and Rietveld refinement analysis, the microwave irradiated BaTiO3 sample was composed of hexagonal 89%, cubic 5% and tetragonal 6%. Due to the direct internal heating mechanism of microwaves, the core temperature of the sample might be higher than the phase transition temperature. The magnetic behavior of the sample was investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results indicated that the microwave irradiated BaTiO3 exhibited mixed magnetism: ferromagnetic nature at low applied magnetic fields and diamagnetic nature at high applied magnetic fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)627-632
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • BaTiO
  • Magnetic properties
  • Microwave processing
  • Rietveld refinement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Defect induced ferromagnetism in h-BaTiO3 synthesized from t-BaTiO3 by microwave heating'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this