Design and testing of augmented reality-based fluorescence imaging goggle for intraoperative imaging-guided surgery

Seung Hyun Lee, Yu Hua Quan, Min Sub Kim, Ki Hyeok Kwon, Byeong Hyeon Choi, Hyun Koo Kim, Beop Min Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The different pathways between the position of a near-infrared camera and the user’s eye limit the use of existing near-infrared fluorescence imaging systems for tumor margin assessments. By utilizing an optical system that precisely matches the near-infrared fluorescence image and the optical path of visible light, we developed an augmented reality (AR)-based fluorescence imaging system that provides users with a fluorescence image that matches the real-field, without requiring any additional algorithms. Commercial smart glasses, dichroic beam splitters, mirrors, and custom near-infrared cameras were employed to develop the proposed system, and each mount was designed and utilized. After its performance was assessed in the laboratory, preclinical experiments involving tumor detection and lung lobectomy in mice and rabbits by using indocyanine green (ICG) were conducted. The results showed that the proposed system provided a stable image of fluorescence that matched the actual site. In addition, preclinical experiments confirmed that the proposed system could be used to detect tumors using ICG and evaluate lung lobectomies. The AR-based intraoperative smart goggle system could detect fluorescence images for tumor margin assessments in animal models, without disrupting the surgical workflow in an operating room. Additionally, it was confirmed that, even when the system itself was distorted when worn, the fluorescence image consistently matched the actual site.

Original languageEnglish
Article number927
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun


  • Augmented reality
  • Fluorescence image
  • Neuro-navigation
  • Smart goggle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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