Design, development, and evaluation of a novel microneedle array-based continuous glucose monitor

Arvind Jina, Michael J. Tierney, Janet A. Tamada, Scott McGill, Shashi Desai, Beelee Chua, Anna Chang, Mark Christiansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)


The development of accurate, minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices has been the subject of much work by several groups, as it is believed that a less invasive and more user-friendly device will result in greater adoption of CGM by persons with insulin-dependent diabetes. This article presents the results of preliminary clinical studies in subjects with diabetes of a novel prototype microneedle-based continuous glucose monitor. In this device, an array of tiny hollow microneedles is applied into the epidermis from where glucose in interstitial fluid (ISF) is transported via passive diffusion to an amperometric glucose sensor external to the body. Comparison of 1396 paired device glucose measurements and fingerstick blood glucose readings for up to 72-hour wear in 10 diabetic subjects shows the device to be accurate and well tolerated by the subjects. Overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) is 15% with 98.4% of paired points in the A+B region of the Clarke error grid. The prototype device has demonstrated clinically accurate glucose readings over 72 hours, the first time a microneedle-based device has achieved such performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-487
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was funded by ArKal Medical, Inc.


  • Continuous glucose
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Microneedle
  • Minimally invasive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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