Design principles for coupled piezoelectric and electromagnetic hybrid energy harvesters for autonomous sensor systems

Inki Jung, Jaehoon Choi, Hye Jeong Park, Tae Gon Lee, Sahn Nahm, Hyun Cheol Song, Sangtae Kim, Chong Yun Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the many studies reporting mW-level power output from various hybridized energy harvesters, few succeeded in demonstrating real-life applications such as the commercial Internet of Things (IoT) sensor modules. This owes in large part to the limited time-averaged power output, especially under the requirement for the power-consuming circuitry such as rectifiers and AC to DC converters. At the heart of the limited power lies the lack of detailed analyses and optimization strategies to hybridizing two or more distinct energy harvesters. Here, we first develop design guidelines and optimization strategies based on a parametric model for hybridized energy harvesters coupling two or more distinct mechanisms. The model treats electric current-generating energy harvesters as electric dampers in the spring-mass-damper system and seeks to minimize the total damping consisting of electrical and mechanical damping. We then demonstrate the design guidelines to an oval-shaped hybrid energy harvester consisting of piezoelectric and electromagnetic generators, achieving the time-averaged power output of 25.45 mW at 60 Hz and 0.5 G input vibration. Also, the detailed analyses reveal that the two coupled generators operate in a complementary manner, maintaining a reasonable power output even when one generator suddenly degrades or fails. We finally demonstrate powering a commercial IoT sensor module with the hybrid energy harvester, receiving the sensed information to a smartphone via Bluetooth connectivity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104921
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept


  • Electromagnetic energy harvester
  • Hybrid energy harvester
  • Optimization of mechanical damping
  • Piezoelectric energy harvester

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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