This study was conducted to determine the significance of bromacil transport as a function of water and carbon content in soils and to explore the implications of neglecting sorption when making assessments of travel time of bromacil through the vadose zone. Equilibrium batch sorption tests were performed for loamy sand and sandy soil added with four different levels of powdered activated carbon (PAC) content (0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1%). Column experiments were also conducted at various water and carbon contents under steady-state flow conditions. The first set of column experiments was conducted in loamy sand containing 1.5% organic carbon under three different water contents (0.23, 0.32, and 0.41) to measure breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide and bromacil injected as a square pulse. In the second set of column experiments, BTCs of bromide and bromacil injected as a front were measured in saturated sandy columns at the four different PAC levels given above. Column breakthrough data were analyzed with both equilibrium and nonequilibrium (two-site) convection-dispersion equation (CDE) models to determine transport and sorption parameters under various water and carbon contents. Analysis with batch data indicated that neglect of the partition-related term in the calculation of solute velocity may lead to erroneous estimation of travel time of bromacil, i.e. an overestimation of the solute velocity by a factor of R. The column experiments showed that arrival time of the bromacil peak was larger than that of the bromide peak in soils, indicating that transport of bromacil was retarded relative to bromide in the observed conditions. Extent of bromacil retardation (R) increased with decreasing water content and increasing PAC content, supporting the importance of retardation in the estimation of travel time of bromacil even at small amounts of organic carbon for soils with lower water content.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
|Published - 2007 Jun
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (KRF-2005-C00168).
- Bromacil transport
- Carbon content
- Water content
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science