Development and validation of a food literacy assessment tool for community-dwelling elderly people

Hyeona So, Dahyun Park, Mi Kyung Choi, Young Sun Kim, Min Jeong Shin, Yoo Kyoung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Food literacy refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for individuals to choose foods that promote health. As the rate of diet-related diseases increases, food literacy is becoming more important. However, there are no tools available to evaluate food literacy among the Korean elderly. We derived 547 questions from a literature review and, after three rounds of Delphi surveys, selected 33 preliminary questions. We calculated the content validity ratio of the questions and applied a face validity procedure. We then selected 32 questions, assessed their validity, and distributed them as a questionnaire to 205 elderly people. We then conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the validity of the questionnaire and used an internal consistency index (Cronbach’s α coefficient) to determine reliability. Based on the factor analysis, 13 questions were selected, distributed among three factors, and evaluated using the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett sphericity tests. The factor analysis showed that KMO was 0.872, which is a highly acceptable score, and the Bartlett sphericity test was χ2 = 1,374.69 at p = 0.00. The food literacy questionnaire developed in this study will likely be helpful for improving the healthcare of elderly people.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4979
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was conducted with support from the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ014709022021)” of the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Elderly
  • Food literacy
  • Questionnaire
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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