Development of a comprehensive food literacy measurement tool integrating the food system and sustainability

Dahyun Park, Yoo Kyoung Park, Clara Yongjoo Park, Mi Kyung Choi, Min Jeong Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of food literacy is evolving and expanding, increasing the need for a comprehensive measurement tool for food literacy. This study aimed to develop a validated food literacy questionnaire based on an expanded conceptual framework for food literacy. A literature review of existing frameworks and questionnaires for food literacy and focus group interviews (n = 12) were conducted to develop a conceptual framework and candidate questions. A Delphi study (n = 15) and pilot survey (n = 10) to test the preliminary questionnaire’s content and face validity were conducted, which were followed by the main survey (n = 200). Construct validity and reliability were assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach’s alpha, respectively. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing food literacy scores with food knowledge scores (FNscore) and nutrient quotient scores (NQ-score). By integrating and revising the six existing conceptual frameworks and focus group interview results, we proposed a two-dimensional conceptual framework comprising a literacy dimension and a food system dimension. After reviewing 560 items and categorizing them into 18 domains (3 in the literacy dimension × 6 in the food system dimension), 32 questions were selected. As a result of the Delphi study, two items were deleted, and content validity was confirmed for the remaining 30 items (content validity ratio (CVR) = 0.92). Ten items were revised during the face validation process, and five items were excluded as a result of the EFA. The final food literacy questionnaire comprised 25 questions related to five factors: production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal. Food literacy scores were positively associated with FN-and NQ-scores, confirming the reliability and criterion validity of the final questionnaire. The two-dimensional food literacy conceptual framework developed in this study systematically encompasses complex food literacy concepts by adding a food systems dimension (production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal domain) to the existing literacy dimension (functional, interactive, and critical literacy domain). Based on this integrated conceptual framework, a 25-item food literacy questionnaire was developed and validated for practical use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3300
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov


  • Eating behavior
  • Food chain
  • Food consumption
  • Food literacy
  • Health education
  • Health literacy
  • Questionnaire
  • Sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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