Development of a loss minimization based operation strategy for embedded BTB VSC HVDC

Jaehyeong Lee, Minhan Yoon, Sungchul Hwang, Soseul Jeong, Seungmin Jung, Gilsoo Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, there have been many cases in which direct current (DC) facilities have been placed in alternating current (AC) systems for various reasons. In particular, in Korea, studies are being conducted to install a back-to-back (BTB) voltage-sourced converter (VSC) high-voltage direct current (HVDC) to solve the fault current problem of the meshed system, and discussions on how to operate it have been made accordingly. It is possible to provide grid services such as minimizing grid loss by changing the HVDC operating point, but it also may violate reliability standards without proper HVDC operation according to the system condition. Especially, unlike the AC system, DC may adversely affect the AC system because the operating point does not change even after a disturbance has occurred, so strategies to change the operating point after the contingency are required. In this paper, a method for finding the operating point of embedded HVDC that minimizes losses within the range of compliance with the reliability criterion is proposed. We use the Power Transfer Distribution Factor (PTDF) to reduce the number of buses to be monitored during HVDC control, reduce unnecessary checks, and determine the setpoints for the active/reactive power of the HVDC through system total loss minimization (STLM) control to search for the minimum loss point using Powell's direct set. We also propose an algorithm to search for the operating point that minimizes the loss automatically and solves the overload occurring in an emergency through security-constrained loss minimization (SCLM) control. To verify the feasibility of the algorithm, we conducted a case study using an actual Korean power system and verified the effect of systematic loss reduction and overload relief in a contingency. The simulations are conducted by a commercial power system analysis tool, Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E).

Original languageEnglish
Article number2234
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Korea Electric Power Corporation grant (R17XA05-4) and “Human Resources Program in Energy Technology” of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No.20174030201540).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors.


  • Back-to-back HVDC
  • Embedded HVDC
  • HVDC operation point
  • Powell's direct set method
  • System loss minimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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