Development of an in situ equilibrium polydimethylsiloxane passive sampler for measuring volatile organic compounds in soil vapor

Jae Kyoung Moon, Pil Gon Kim, Keum Young Lee, Jung Hwan Kwon, Yongseok Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


An equilibrium passive sampler made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber was developed to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil vapor. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) was used to protect PDMS from pollution and direct contact with soil components. For all tested VOCs, equilibrium was reached after 7 days at 5 °C. The equilibrium partition coefficients of VOCs between PDMS, gas, and water were measured at three different temperatures. The analyte concentrations in PDMS exposed to gas and water separately were almost the same, which suggests that Cgas and Cwater in soil pores can be accurately deduced from CPDMS after equilibrium at various temperatures. To evaluate the passive sampler, active sampling measurements were performed simultaneously. Concentrations of VOCs deduced from the passive sampler were consistent with the concentrations measured by active sampling near the 1:1 line. Tests with artificial soils were conducted to observe the effects of soil components on passive sampling. The results suggest that the effect of water saturation can be ignored; in other words, the developed passive sampler can be applied in the vadose zone, which has fluctuating water saturation. With a holder for the sampler made of stainless steel, the developed in situ passive sampler can measure VOCs in contaminated soil vapor. The developed passive sampler was proven to be an alternative for measuring VOCs in soil vapor, which can be helpful for soil risk assessment and for observing the diffusion of VOCs in contaminated sites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number138419
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Subsurface Environment Management Projects funded by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute , South Korea (Project Number: 2020002440005 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Equilibrium partition coefficient
  • Passive sampling
  • Polydimethylsiloxane
  • Soil vapor
  • Vapor intrusion
  • Volatile organic compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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