Mammals conserve multiple mammalian Atg8-family proteins (mATG8s) consisting of GABARAP (GABA type A receptor-associated protein) and MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) subfamilies that tightly bind to autophagic membranes in a membrane-anchored form. These proteins are crucial for selective autophagy and recruit proteins bearing LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. However, because limited research tools are available, information on the specific roles of each membrane-anchored mATG8 in selective autophagy is scarce. In this study, we identified LIR motifs specific to the membrane-anchored form of each mATG8 and characterized the residues critical for their selective interaction using cell-based assays and structural analyses. We then used these selective LIR motifs to develop probes and irreversible deconjugases that targeted selective membrane-anchored mATG8s in the autophagic membrane, revealing that membrane-anchored GABARAP subfamily proteins regulate the aggrephagy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked protein aggregates. Our tools will be useful for elucidating the functional significance of each mATG8 protein on autophagic membranes in autophagy research. Abbreviations: A:C autophagic membrane:cytosol; ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ATG4 autophagy related 4; Atg8 autophagy related 8; BafA1 bafilomycin A1; BNIP3L/Nix BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CALCOCO2/NDP52 calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; EBSS Earle’s balanced salt solution; GABARAP GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GST glutathione S transferase; HKO hexa knockout; Kd dissociation constant; LIR LC3-interacting region; MAP1LC3/LC3 microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; NLS nuclear localization signal/sequence; PE phosphatidylethanolamine; SpHfl1 Schizosaccharomyces pombeorganic solute transmembrane transporter; SQSTM1/p62 SQSTM1/p62; TARDBP/TDP-43 TAR DNA binding protein; TKO triple knockout.
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© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
- LIR motif
- RavZ protein
- mammalian ATG8
- selective mATG8–PE delipidation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology