Due to the continuously mutating nature of the H3N2 virus, two aspects were considered when preparing the H3N2 microneedle vaccines: (1) rapid preparation and (2) cross-protection against multiple antigenic variants. Previous methods of measuring hemagglutinin (HA) content required the standard antibody, thus rapid preparation of H3N2 microneedle vaccines targeting the mutant H3N2 was delayed as a result of lacking a standard antibody. In this study, H3N2 microneedle vaccines were prepared by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) without the use of an antibody, and the cross-protection of the vaccines against several antigenic variants was observed. The HA content measured by HPLC was compared with that measured by ELISA to observe the accuracy of the HPLC analysis of HA content. The cross-protection afforded by the H3N2 microneedle vaccines was evaluated against several antigenic variants in mice. Microneedle vaccines for the 2019–20 seasonal H3N2 influenza virus (19–20 A/KS/17) were prepared using a dip-coating process. The cross-protection of 19–20 A/KS/17 H3N2 microneedle vaccines against the 2015–16 seasonal H3N2 influenza virus in mice was investigated by monitoring body weight changes and survival rate. The neutralizing antibody against several H3N2 antigenic variants was evaluated using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). HA content in the solid microneedle vaccine formulation with trehalose post-exposure at 40℃ for 24 h was 48% and 43% from the initial HA content by HPLC and ELISA, respectively. The vaccine was administered to two groups of mice, one by microneedles and the other by intramuscular injection (IM). In vivo efficacies in the two groups were found to be similar, and cross-protection efficacy was also similar in both groups. HPLC exhibited good diagnostic performance with H3N2 microneedle vaccines and good agreement with ELISA. The H3N2 microneedle vaccines elicited a cross-protective immune response against the H3N2 antigenic variants. Here, we propose the use of HPLC for a more rapid approach in preparing H3N2 microneedle vaccines targeting H3N2 virus variants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Gachon University research fund of 2019 (GCU-2019-0814), by the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (20014911, The development and production of microneedle mediated influenza vaccine for improving mucosal immunity), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, South Korea) and by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea (Grant no. NRF-2018M3A9H4056537). The authors would like to thank Mr. Kyung Taek Kim and Dr. Ju-Young Kim for his advice and feedback on this manuscript.
© 2022, The Author(s).
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