Development of the Korean Version of the Pain Assessment Tool in Impaired Cognition (KPAIC-15) for Patients with Dementia: A Scale Development

Sun Young Lim, Su Jung Lee, Sung Ok Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (KPAIC-15) for people with dementia. Methods: Participants in this study were 200 patients with dementia in two long-term care hospitals in the Republic of Korea. The PAIC-15 was translated into Korean using the process for the translation and adaptation of instruments developed by the World Health Organization. Three bilingual nursing professionals carried out this process. The construct validity, convergent validity, Cronbach’s ⍺, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the translated instrument were evaluated. IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0 and AMOS 26.0 were used for data analysis. Results: In the confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses, the KPAIC-15 exhibited an adequate model fit, with three factors accounting for 72.13% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the KPAIC-15. The scale had a Cronbach’s ⍺ of .91, an inter-rater reliability of .75 (p<.001), and a test-retest reliability of .71 (p<.001). Conclusion: The findings show the KPAIC-15 is valid and reliable for use in the pain assessment of people diagnosed with dementia in the Republic of Korea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-228
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Korean Gerontological Nursing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (2022R1A2C1004542).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Korean Gerontological Nursing Society.


  • Dementia
  • Factor analysis
  • Pain
  • Reproducibility of results
  • Residential facilities
  • Statistical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gerontology


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