Sodium is a physiologically essential nutrient, but excessive intake is linked to the increased risk of various chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular. It is, therefore, necessary to accomplish an evidence-based approach and establish the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (KDRIs) index, to identify both the nutritional adequacy and health effects of sodium. This review presents the rationale for and the process of revising the KDRIs for sodium and, more importantly, establishing the sodium Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) level, which is a new specific set of values for chronic disease risk reduction. To establish the 2020 KDRIs for dietary sodium, the committee conducted a systematic literature review of the intake–response relationships between the selected indicators for sodium levels and human chronic diseases. In this review, 43 studies published from January 2014 to December 2018, using databases of PubMed and Web of Science, were finally included for evaluating the risk of bias and strength of evidence (SoE). We determined that SoE of the relationship between dietary sodium and cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension, was moderate to strong. However, due to insufficient scientific evidence, we were unable to establish the estimated average requirement and the recommended nutrient intake for dietary sodium. Therefore, the adequate intake of sodium for adults was established to be 1,500 mg/day, whereas the CDRR for dietary sodium was established at 2,300 mg/day for adults. Intake goal for dietary sodium established in the 2015 KDRIs instead of the tolerable upper intake level was not presented in the 2020 KDRIs. For the next revision of the KDRIs, there is a requirement to pursue further studies on nutritional adequacy and toxicity of dietary sodium, and their associations with chronic disease endpoint in the Korean population.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.
- Dietary Reference Intake
- South Korea
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics