Differentiation of hemorrhagic infarction from primary intracerebral hemorrhage in the chronic period

Kyung Hee Cho, Sung Hye You, Bang Hoon Cho, Sungwook Yu, Hae Kwan Park, A. Hyun Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Regarding incidentally found old hemorrhagic foci on gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (GRE), it is difficult to distinguish whether the foci are the consequence of hemorrhagic infarction (HI) or primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). We analyzed the radiological characteristics of patients with a definite history of HI or PICH by reviewing long-term follow-up GRE. We retrospectively enrolled patients with HI or PICH, verified by clinical history and radiological findings, who had undergone follow-up GRE at least 3 months after the first imaging. The shape of the hemorrhagic lesion was classified as “cavitation” or “no cavitation.” The shape of the hemosiderin rim was classified as total dark rim and partial dark rim. Hyperintense perilesional signal was determined when an obvious hyperintensity on T2-weighted image was present. Further, we compared the radiological characteristics between HI and PICH. In total, 69 patients (38 with HI and 31 with PICH) were enrolled, of whom 45 (65%) were men. The mean patient age was 65.5 ± 12.7 years. The mean time interval from the initial stroke onset to the follow-up image was 56.2 months. Hyperintense perilesional signal was observed in 38 patients; it was associated with HI (33/38 vs. 5/31, p < 0.001). Furthermore, partial dark rim was associated with HI (34/40 vs. 4/29, p < 0.001). Cavitation was more frequently observed in patients with HI than in those with PICH (36/60 vs. 2/9, p = 0.068). Presence of hyperintense perilesional signal and partially encasing dark hemosiderin rim suggest that chronic hemorrhagic foci are the sequelae of HI, not PICH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-122
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept
Externally publishedYes


  • Gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging
  • Hemorrhagic infarction
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Differentiation of hemorrhagic infarction from primary intracerebral hemorrhage in the chronic period'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this